Adults

Comparison of ICD-10R, DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 in an Adult Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnostic Clinic

Source: 
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Date Published: 
March 16, 2013
Abstract: 

With the number of people seeking ASD evaluations in adulthood on the rise, researchers sought to investigate how DSM-5 criteria would fare in a diagnostic clinic for adults with minimal intellectual disability. Compared to ICD-10R and DSM-IV-TR, DSM-5 specificity was good but sensitivity was poor: 44% of adults who met ICD-10R ASD criteria and 22% who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for Asperger syndrome or autistic disorder would not qualify for a DSM-5 ASD diagnosis.

Do Sheltered Workshops Enhance Employment Outcomes for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder?

Source: 
Autism
Date Published: 
May 24, 2011
Abstract: 

Researchers sought to determine if sheltered workshops help prepare individuals with ASD for competitive employment and found that individuals with ASD achieve better vocational outcomes if they do not participate in sheltered workshops prior to enrolling in supported employment.

Developmental Meta-Analysis of the Functional Neural Correlates of Autism Spectrum Disorders

Source: 
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Date Published: 
December 26, 2012
Abstract: 

According to this recent meta-analysis of fMRI studies, autism-related changes in brain activity may continue to develop with age.

Disparities in Transition Planning for Youth With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Source: 
Pediatrics
Date Published: 
February 11, 2013
Abstract: 

"Little is known about accessibility to health care transition (HCT) services for youth with autism spectrum disorder. This study expands our understanding by examining the receipt of HCT services in youth with ASD compared with youth with other special health care needs."

Mindfulness-based Therapy in Adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: a Randomized Controlled Trial

Source: 
Research in Developmental Disabilities
Date Published: 
January 1, 2013
Abstract: 

This is the first randomized controlled trial demonstrating the efficacy of mindfulness-based therapy for adults with ASD. Participants who received MBT benefited from the therapy, showing less depression, anxiety and rumination, and more positive affect.

The Role of the Amygdala In Atypical Gaze On Emotional Faces In Autism Spectrum Disorders

Source: 
Journal of Neuroscience
Date Published: 
July 11, 2012
Abstract: 

"Reduced focus toward the eyes is a characteristic of atypical gaze on emotional faces in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Along with the atypical gaze, aberrant amygdala activity during face processing compared with neurotypically developed (NT) participants has been repeatedly reported in ASD. It remains unclear whether the previously reported dysfunctional amygdalar response patterns in ASD support an active avoidance of direct eye contact or rather a lack of social attention. Using a recently introduced emotion classification task, we investigated eye movements and changes in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal in the amygdala with a 3T MRI scanner in 16 autistic and 17 control adult human participants. By modulating the initial fixation position on faces, we investigated changes triggered by the eyes compared with the mouth. Between-group interaction effects revealed different patterns of gaze and amygdalar BOLD changes in ASD and NT: Individuals with ASD gazed more often away from than toward the eyes, compared with the NT group, which showed the reversed tendency. An interaction contrast of group and initial fixation position further yielded a significant cluster of amygdala activity. Extracted parameter estimates showed greater response to eyes fixation in ASD, whereas the NT group showed an increase for mouth fixation. The differing patterns of amygdala activity in combination with differing patterns of gaze behavior between groups triggered by direct eye contact and mouth fixation, suggest a dysfunctional profile of the amygdala in ASD involving an interplay of both eye-avoidance processing and reduced orientation."

Recognition, Referral, Diagnosis, and Management of Adults with Autism: Summary of NICE Guidance

Source: 
BMJ Group
Date Published: 
June 27, 2012

Outcomes in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Historical Perspective

Source: 
Autism
Date Published: 
August 21, 2012
Abstract: 

"In this review, we examine the ways in which researchers have defined successful adult outcomes for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) from the first systematic follow-up reports to the present day. The earliest outcome studies used vague and unreliable outcome criteria, and institutionalization was a common marker of poor outcomes. In the past decade, researchers have begun to standardize the measurement of adult outcomes with specific criteria based on friendships, employment, and living arrangements. Although nearly all of these studies have agreed that the majority of adults with ASD have poor outcomes, evolving concepts of what it means to be an adult could have an impact on outcomes measured. For example, some researchers have suggested that taking into account the person-environment fit could reveal a more optimistic picture of outcomes for these adults. Suggestions for future research are discussed."

Evaluation of an Activities of Daily Living Scale for Adolescents and Adults with Developmental Disabilities

Source: 
Disability and Health Journal
Date Published: 
October 17, 2012
Abstract: 

ASF Grantee Matthew Maenner and colleagues developed the Waisman Activities of Daily Living (W-ADL) Scale to measure daily living skills of adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities. The scale is a free and efficient tool for surveys and epidemiological research.