Biomarkers

Excessive Cerebral Spinal Fluid and Enlarged Brain Size in Infants May Be a Potential Biomarker for Autism

Source: 
Brain: A Journal of Neurology
Date Published: 
April 29, 2013
Abstract: 

Researchers find that infants who later develop autism have more cerebral spinal fluid and larger brain sizes compared to typically developing infants. These differences could be a potential biomarker in infants for autism.

Important Molecular Targets of the Autism-Linked RORA Gene Identified

Source: 
Molecular Autism
Date Published: 
May 22, 2013
Abstract: 

Scientists from George Washington University identified hundreds of molecular targets of the RORA gene. Of these molecular targets, 426 are linked to autism by the AutismKB database.

Decreased Amino Acid L-Tryptophan Metabolism In Patients With ASD

Source: 
Molecular Autism
Date Published: 
June 4, 2013
Abstract: 

The study found that individuals with ASD had significantly decreased metabolism of the amino acid L-Tryptophan compared to their control group and individuals with other neurodevelopmental disorders. This amino acid could be used as a potential indicator for a simple, early blood test for autism.

New Gene Variants Linked to Autism

Source: 
Nature
Date Published: 
May 28, 2013
Abstract: 

A new study using families from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) finds that individuals with autism are 20% more likely to have copy-number variations of specific genes.

Blood-based Gene Expression Signatures of Infants and Toddlers with Autism.

Source: 
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Date Published: 
September 2012
Abstract: 

"OBJECTIVE: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that onset clinically during the first years of life. ASD risk biomarkers expressed early in life could significantly impact diagnosis and treatment, but no transcriptome-wide biomarker classifiers derived from fresh blood samples from children with autism have yet emerged.

RESULTS: Potential ASD biomarkers were discovered in one-half of the sample and used to build a classifier, with high diagnostic accuracy in the remaining half of the sample."

Biomarker Progress Offers Hope for Early Autism Spectrum Disorder Detection

Source: 
Science Daily
Date Published: 
November 30, 2012
Abstract: 

A special issue of Disease Markers offers a comprehensive review on how current genetic research can be applied to biomarker development in ASD.

Study Finds No Link Between Autism and Gut Microbes

Source: 
SFARI
Date Published: 
November 5, 2012
Abstract: 

Contradicting a popular hypothesis in autism, a new study from Australia has found no connection between autism and bacteria in the gut. For the peer-reviewed article, click here: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22997101

Atypical Activation During the Embedded Figures Task as a Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Endophenotype of Autism

Source: 
Brain
Date Published: 
October 11, 2012
Abstract: 

This study uncovers a possible fMRI endophenotype of autism, showing that compared to typically developing controls with no family history of ASD, adolescents with autism and non-autistic siblings had atypical patterns of brain activation during the Embedded Figures Task.

The Emerging Biology of Autism Spectrum Disorders

Source: 
Science
Date Published: 
September 14, 2012
Abstract: 

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous group of syndromes defined by fundamental impairments in social reciprocity and language development accompanied by highly restrictive interests and/or repetitive behaviors. Recent advances in genetics, genomics, developmental neurobiology, systems biology, monogenic neurodevelopment syndromes, and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) are now offering remarkable insights into their etiologies and converging to provide a clear and immediate path forward from the bench to the bedside.

Molecular Mechanisms: Autism Gene Regulates Neuron Shape

Source: 
Simons Foundation Austism Research Initiative
Date Published: 
July 31,2012
Abstract: 

Scientists at MIT have found that TAOK2, a gene in the autism-associated chromosomal region, is part of a signaling pathway that builds neuronal connections during development.