Diagnostic Disparities

Age at Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders

Source: 
Journal of Pediatrics
Date Published: 
June 9, 2012
Abstract: 

"Early identification of autism has become a national priority but, despite efforts, there are children who are being identified at a later age. In this study, children of Hispanic and African American origin, foreign-born children, and children born to foreign mothers were more likely to be diagnosed later."

DSM-5 Field Trials in the United States and Canada, Part II: Test-Retest Reliability of Selected Categorical Diagnoses

Source: 
American Journal of Psychiatry
Date Published: 
October 30, 2012
Abstract: 

"OBJECTIVE The DSM-5 Field Trials were designed to obtain precise (standard error <0.1) estimates of the intraclass kappa as a measure of the degree to which two clinicians could independently agree on the presence or absence of selected DSM-5 diagnoses when the same patient was interviewed on separate occasions, in clinical settings, and evaluated with usual clinical interview methods."

A Multisite Study of the Clinical Diagnosis of Different Autism Spectrum Disorders

Source: 
Archives of General Psychiatry
Date Published: 
March 2012
Abstract: 

"OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the relationships between behavioral phenotypes and clinical diagnoses of different autism spectrum disorders vary across 12 university-based sites.

CONCLUSION: Clinical distinctions among categorical diagnostic subtypes of autism spectrum disorders were not reliable even across sites with well-documented fidelity using standardized diagnostic instruments. Results support the move from existing subgroupings of autism spectrum disorders to dimensional descriptions of core features of social affect and fixated, repetitive behaviors, together with characteristics such as language level and cognitive function."

The Rising Prevalence of Autism: A Prospective Longitudinal Study in the Faroe Islands

Source: 
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Date Published: 
September 2012
Abstract: 

"We have followed up a 2002 population study of autism prevalence in 15-24-year olds in the Faroe Islands. The rate of ASD grew significantly from 0.56% in 2002 to 0.94% in 2009. Although these results are within the range of typical findings from other studies, there were some interesting details. There were-in addition to 43 originally diagnosed cases in 2002-24 newly discovered cases in 2009 and nearly half of them were females. It is possible that unfamiliarity with the clinical presentation of autism in females have played a significant role in this context. There was diagnostic stability for the overall category of ASD over time in the group diagnosed in childhood (7-16) years, but considerable variability as regards diagnostic sub-groupings."

Application of DSM-5 Criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder to Three Samples of Children with DSM-IV Diagnoses of Pervasive Developmental Disorders

Source: 
The American Journal of Psychiatry
Date Published: 
October 2012
Abstract: 

"OBJECTIVE: Substantial revisions to the DSM-IV criteria for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have been proposed in efforts to increase diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. This study evaluated the proposed DSM-5 criteria for the single diagnostic category of autism spectrum disorder in children with DSM-IV diagnoses of pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) and non-PDD diagnoses.

CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that most children with DSM-IV PDD diagnoses would remain eligible for an ASD diagnosis under the proposed DSM-5 criteria. Compared with the DSM-IV criteria for Asperger's disorder and PDD-NOS, the DSM-5 ASD criteria have greater specificity, particularly when abnormalities are evident from both parents and clinical observation."

Hispanic Children with Autism Remain Undiagnosed, Reveals Study

Source: 
Autism
Date Published: 
March 7, 2012
Abstract: 

When compared to non-Hispanic white children, Hispanic youth are more likely to go undiagnosed for developmental issues and autism, says a study from UC Davis MIND Institute.

Autism Criteria Criticized by DSM-5 Leader

Source: 
Medical Page Today
Date Published: 
May 9, 2012
Abstract: 

Swedo spoke at the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) annual meeting, in her role as chairperson of the work group developing new diagnostic criteria for neurodevelopmental disorders in DSM-5, the forthcoming fifth edition of the APA's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

What to Make of the New Autism Numbers

Source: 
Time Magazine
Date Published: 
April 9, 2012
Abstract: 

Evidence shows an increased number of autism diagnoses. There is the possibility that the increase in cases is entirely the result of better detection. Scientists must work to uncover the truth.

Study Warns Of Autism Risk For Children Of Obese Mothers

Source: 
NPR
Date Published: 
April 9, 2012
Abstract: 

A new study in the journal Pediatrics suggests that moms who are obese or have diabetes are more likely to have a child with autism or another developmental problem.

Gene Studies of Autism Point to Mutations and Parents’ Age

Source: 
New York Times
Date Published: 
April 4, 2012
Abstract: 

Three teams of scientists working independently to understand the biology of autism have for the first time homed in on several gene mutations that they agree sharply increase the chances that a child will develop the disorder, and have found further evidence that the risk increases with the age of the parents, particularly the father.