Diagnostic Disparities

Autism Hidden in Plain Sight

Source: 
LA Times
Date Published: 
December 16, 2011
Abstract: 

As more children are diagnosed with autism, researchers are trying to find unrecognized cases of the disorder in adults. The search for the missing millions is just beginning.

Fetal Exposure to Epilepsy Drug Might Raise Autism Risk: Study

Source: 
US News & World Report
Date Published: 
December 5, 2011
Abstract: 

Children exposed to the epilepsy drug valproate have a nearly three times higher risk of having an autism spectrum disorder, new research finds.

Diagnosing Autism Varies From Clinic To Clinic

Source: 
Medical News Today
Date Published: 
November 11, 2011
Abstract: 

A new study published in the journal Archives of General Psychiatry suggests that the current gold standard of "best-estimate clinical diagnoses" for the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders may not be the best method of diagnosis.

University of Missouri researchers have found distinct differences between the facial characteristics of children with autism compared to those of typically developing children.

Source: 
Medical News Today
Date Published: 
October 22, 2011
Abstract: 

The face and brain develop in coordination, with each influencing the other, beginning in the embryo and continuing through adolescence. Now, University of Missouri researchers have found distinct differences between the facial characteristics of children with autism compared to those of typically developing children...

Having A Child With Autism Linked To Genetic Variant And Autoantibodies: Finding May Lead To Screening Test

Source: 
Medical News Today
Date Published: 
October 20, 2011
Abstract: 

A study by researchers at UC Davis has found that pregnant women with a particular gene variation are more likely to produce autoantibodies to the brains of their developing fetuses and that the children of these mothers are at greater risk of later being diagnosed with autism.

Researchers find autism more common with low birth weight

Source: 
Philadelphia Inquirer
Date Published: 
October 17, 2011
Abstract: 

Autism is far more common in low-birth-weight babies than the general population, researchers are reporting, a significant finding that nevertheless raises more questions than it answers and illustrates how little is known about a group of disorders that affect nearly 1 percent of American children.

The Accuracy Of Autism Diagnosis In Children With Down Syndrome Validated By New Findings

Source: 
Medical News Today
Date Published: 
October 6, 2011
Abstract: 

New findings from a 16-year study confirm that the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), the gold-standard for the classification of mental health conditions, can be used to accurately identify autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in children with Down syndrome, according to research from Kennedy Krieger Institute.

Prevalence and Correlates of Autism in a State Psychiatric Hospital

Source: 
Left Brain - Right Brian
Date Published: 
August 24, 2011
Abstract: 

This study estimated the ASD prevalence in a psychiatric hospital and evaluated the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) combined with other information for differential diagnosis. Chart review, SRS and clinical interviews were collected for 141 patients at one hospital. Diagnosis was determined at case conference. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to evaluate the SRS as a screening instrument. Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID) analysis estimated the role of other variables, in combination with the SRS, in separating cases and non-cases. Ten percent of the sample had ASD. More than other patients, their onset was prior to 12 years of age, they had gait problems and intellectual disability, and were less likely to have a history of criminal involvement or substance abuse. Sensitivity (0.86) and specificity (0.60) of the SRS were maximized at a score of 84. Adding age of onset <12 years and cigarette use among those with SRS <80 increased sensitivity to 1.00 without lowering specificity. Adding a history substance abuse among those with SRS >80 increased specificity to 0.90 but dropped sensitivity to 0.79. Undiagnosed ASD may be common in psychiatric hospitals. The SRS, combined with other information, may discriminate well between ASD and other disorders.

Residential Proximity to Freeways and Autism in the CHARGE Study

Source: 
Environ Health Perspect, Volke et al.
Date Published: 
June 2011
Year Published: 
2011

Researchers at the University of Southern California examined the association between autism and proximity of residence to freeways and major roadways during pregnancy and near the time of delivery, as a surrogate for air pollution exposure. Using the mother’s address recorded on the birth certificate and trimester-specific addresses derived from a residential history, measures of distance to freeways and major roads were calculated and logistic regression models compared residential proximity to freeways and major roads for autism cases and typically developing controls. The researchers concluded that living near a freeway was associated with autism, and examination of associations with measured air pollutants is needed.

Most Adults with Autism Go Undiagnosed - New Findings, UK

Source: 
Medical News Today
Date Published: 
May 4, 2011
Abstract: 

Dr Brugha, who is also a consultant psychiatrist working in the NHS with the Leicestershire Partnership NHS Trust, said none of the cases with autism found in the community survey throughout England knew that they were autistic or had received an official diagnosis of autism or asperger syndrome.