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SHANK3 Duplication Leads to Hyperactivity in Mice

Source: 
Simons Foundation Autism Research Institute
Date Published: 
December 17, 2013
Abstract: 

Mice with a duplication of SHANK3, a gene with strong links to autism, are hyperactive and manic, reports a study published in Nature.The mice produce about 50 percent more SHANK3 protein than their genetically typical counterparts, the scientists found, much like people with an extra copy of the gene do. The mice also show signs of hyperactivity. The team observed on further testing that the SHANK3 mice show behaviors typically seen in people going through manic episodes. The mice are easier to startle, eat more, have disrupted sleeping patterns and show heightened sensitivity to amphetamine. The mice also have spontaneous seizures.

Study Links Autism and Somalis in Minneapolis

Source: 
New York Times
Date Published: 
December 16, 2013
Abstract: 

A long-awaited study has confirmed the fears of Somali residents in Minneapolis that their children suffer from higher rates of a disabling form of autism compared with other children there. The study — by the University of Minnesota, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the research and advocacy group Autism Speaks — found high rates of autism in two populations: About one Somali child in 32 and one white child in 36 in Minneapolis were on the autism spectrum. But the Somali children were less likely than the whites to be “high-functioning” and more likely to have I.Q.s below 70. (The average I.Q. score is 100.) The study offered no explanation of the statistics.

Children with Autism Benefit from Peer Solicitation

Source: 
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry.
Date Published: 
December 12, 2013
Abstract: 

Peer solicitation – a child inviting another to play – can improve reciprocal social interaction among children with autism, according to a recent Vanderbilt University study. While the children with autism in the study initiated and engaged in less play overall than typically developing children, the researchers found that other children can facilitate and increase interactions by simple requests. These findings highlight the pivotal role that peers have in social interaction, noting that it only takes a single child to prompt other children – with or without autism – to interact.

White Matter in Brain Develops Differently in Children with Autism

Source: 
Simons Foundation Autism Research Institute
Date Published: 
December 6, 2013
Abstract: 

A study in Brain Research shows a difference in how auditory nerve fibers develop may explain why children with autism process sounds a fraction of a second more slowly than typically developing children do. It is known that the brain’s response to sound speeds up as children age. This boost in speed is known to be accompanied by the maturation of white matter — the nerve fibers that connect brain regions. It was once believed that in children with autism, the white matter didn't mature with age like it does in typically-developing children. However, it is now believed that it does mature with age in children with autism, just in a different way.

New Diagnostic Tool for Adults with Autism

Date Published: 
December 9, 2013
Abstract: 

Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have developed a new screening tool to facilitate the diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder in adults. The test is presented in the scientific journal Molecular Autism and is unique in that researchers have, as part of their evaluation, compared the group diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder with psychiatric patients. In adults, distinguishing Autism Spectrum Disorder from other psychiatric conditions can be a problem, as their symptoms often overlap or are similar to those in schizophrenia, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or severe personality disorders.

Gut Microbes Linked to Autismlike Symptoms in Mice

Source: 
Science Magazine
Date Published: 
December 5, 2013
Abstract: 

More information has come about about the gut microbes study in Cell. "I'd want to know more about the mechanism by which the bacteria altered behavior in the mice before beginning to translate the findings to humans" says Emanuel DiCicco-Bloom, a neuroscientist at Rutgers University and member of the ASF Scientific Advisory Board.

Anxiety and Autism May Share Common Basis

Source: 
Simons Foundation Autism Research Institute
Date Published: 
December 3, 2013
Abstract: 

Anxiety runs in families with autism, hinting that the two conditions may share a common origin, suggests a twin study published recently in the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. Compared with controls, the children who had autism or some features of the disorder experienced more of all forms of anxiety, including social anxiety and episodes of panic, according to parent surveys. They scored especially high on generalized and separation anxiety.

Bacterium Can Reverse Autism-Like Behaviour in Mice

Source: 
Cell
Date Published: 
December 5, 2013
Abstract: 

Caltech researchers gave probiotics to mice that had been bred to have autism-like symptoms and found promising results. After being given the probiotics, the mice were more communicative and less anxious. The treatment also reduced gastrointestinal problems in the animals that were similar to those that often accompany autism in humans.

Sex Differences in Social Perception in Children with ASD

Source: 
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Date Published: 
December 2, 2013
Abstract: 

Autism spectrum disorder is more common in males than females. An underrepresentation of females in the ASD literature has led to limited knowledge of differences in social function across the sexes. A study on face perception has shown that despite being closely matched for symptoms, IQ, and age, the girls showed more pronounced atypical brain response, which suggests they are indeed employing compensatory strategies to look as good as they do.

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RNA Bits Vary in Social, Auditory Brain Areas in Autism

Source: 
Simons Foundation Autism Research Institute
Date Published: 
November 14, 2013
Abstract: 

People with autism show differences from controls in the levels of microRNAs, small noncoding bits of RNA, in the social and sound-processing parts of the brain. MicroRNAs, or miRNAs, bind to messenger RNAs, which code for protein, and flag them for degradation. Each miRNA can interfere with the production of several proteins. Of the more than 5,000 miRNAs and other small noncoding RNAs that the researchers screened, they found 3 miRNAs that are dysregulated in these regions in people with autism compared with controls.